HUMANISTIC EDUCATION 167 studies as necessary for an educated man apart from their content. "I have said," remarks the younger Guarino, "that ability to write Latin verse is one of the essential marks of an educated person. I wish now to indicate a second which is of at least equal im- portance, namely, familiarity with the language and literature of Greece."* Latin verse is, of course, a formal study; and, as his argument shows, the knowledge of Greek he desired his pupils to acquire was scarcely less formal. It was not the literature of Greece that was his prime interest, but its words and idioms as throwing light on the Latin language. His discussion of the method of teaching points in the same direction. " The founda- tion of education," he says, "must be laid in grammar"; and he goes on to explain that grammar falls into two parts, the first treating of the rules which govern the use of the different parts of speech, the second including the study of continuous prose, especially of historical narrative. So, again, he urges that the writing of Latin verse should be preceded by a study of the rules of scansion, followed by the daily reading of the poets. Now it is quite true that acquaintance with grammatical and metrical rules is absolutely necessary for the thorough knowledge of a language. But the detachment of rules from their context in actual use and the concentration of attention on them before the reading of literature begins throws open the door to all the abuses of formalism. The study of form in itself is apt to get an exaggerated value attached to it, inconsistent with the humanizing aims of literary culture. Whether this preliminary training in grammar did actually interfere with the proper appreciation of literature in the case of the Guarinos it is impossible to say. But that the danger was a real one is proved by the great elaboration of the analytical side of language study in the generation to which the younger Guarino belonged. Thus we find Perotti, one of the last of Vittorino's pupils, writing Metrice, the first modern treatise on Latin prosody, and Rudimenta Grammatices, the first modern Latin grammar. It was typical of his work, the excellence of which is generally recognized, that in a discussion of " tropes " for students beginning the study of rhetoric he makes no less than thirteen subdivisions. This emphasis on the formal aspects of language was carried still further by his successors, and before * Woodward, Vittorino daFdtre, p. 166.